By Dan Edwards

If you have ever wondered if our Constitution was complete and perfect, the 9th Amendment offers clear proof that it is not, nor did the authors view it as such. The 9th covered the Founders if they left out something important. The Amendment reads “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” While scholars argue about the meaning and legal impact of this amendment, the origin is not disputed. During that summer of 1787, the anti-federalists argued for a Bill of Rights to be included in the Constitution. The Federalist argued against this, partly because they were afraid a list of rights might be incomplete. As history tells, the compromise after Ratification was Madison’s subsequent writing and later adoption of our first 10 Amendments, our Bill of Rights. The 9th covers the case that other rights should not be denied just because they were not listed in the Constitution or Amendments.